Science in Seconds: 200 Key Concepts Explained in an Instant by Hazel Muir

By Hazel Muir

Uncomplicated and obtainable, Science in Seconds is a finished, interesting advent to two hundred key medical principles. every one idea is obviously learned with a important visible and a concise clarification. The techniques incorporated span the entire key medical disciplines, together with Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Biotechnology, Anatomy and body structure, medication, Earth technological know-how, power iteration, Astronomy, Spaceflight and knowledge expertise. using brilliant, academic illustrations--inspired by means of clinical examine suggesting that the mind most sensible absorbs info visually--these compact and conveyable reference publications are excellent learn associates or vacation presents, and enlightening studying for all.

Hazel Muir studied astrophysics at Edinburgh college prior to changing into a employees editor and author at New Scientist. presently a contract author, she nonetheless usually contributes to BBC Sky At Night journal, and has additionally written for Wired UK. She has received foreign awards for her articles from the yank Institute of Physics and the Acoustical Society of the USA.

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Extra resources for Science in Seconds: 200 Key Concepts Explained in an Instant (Knowledge in a Flash)

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37 38 Wave types A wave is a disturbance that propagates through empty space or a medium such as air or water, usually transporting energy as it travels. In “transverse waves,” the disturbance is at right angles to the wave’s direction of motion. Electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, is a form of transverse wave in which magnetic and electric fields oscillate at right angles to the wave’s direction of travel. In “longitudinal waves,” the disturbance is parallel to the wave’s direction.

Light diffraction patterns can be unintuitive and are best seen with laser light. The diffraction pattern of a square hole is cross-shaped, while a circular aperture produces a series of concentric circles. Diffraction by water droplets or ice crystals in thin clouds sometimes creates a beautiful bright ring around the Sun or the Moon. But diffraction is largely a nuisance to optical instrument designers, setting fundamental limits on the clarity of images taken by cameras, microscopes, and telescopes.

41 42 Doppler effect The Doppler effect describes changes in the frequency of waves depending on how the wave source is moving relative to an observer. It explains why the siren of a fire engine sounds higher in pitch as it comes toward us, then sounds lower after the vehicle has driven past. When a source of sound waves moves toward an observer, each successive wave emitted comes from a position closer to the observer, who hears it more quickly due to the shorter travel time. Effectively, the waves bunch together to create an increase in frequency.

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